Sailfish OS Hardware Adaptation
Development Kit Documentation
Release 3.3.0.0
Jolla Ltd.
Jun 16, 2020
CONTENTS
1 Overview 3
1.1 Goal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3 Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2 Prerequisites 7
2.1 Mobile Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.2 Build Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3 Preparing Your Device 9
3.1 Backup and Verify Your Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.2 Flash and Test your Android base image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4 Setting up the SDKs 11
4.1 Setting up required environment variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.2 Setup the Platform SDK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.3 Setting up an Android Build Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5 Building the Android HAL 15
5.1 Checking out Source of the Android base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.2 Device repos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.3 Configure Mountpoint Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.4 Building Relevant Bits of your Android base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.5 Common Pitfalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
6 Setting up Scratchbox2 Target 21
7 Packaging Droid HAL 23
7.1 Creating Repositories for a New Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
7.2 Packaging droid-hal-device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
8 Creating the Sailfish OS Root Filesystem 27
8.1 Additional Packages for Hardware Adaptation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
8.2 Allowed Content in Your Sailfish OS Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
8.3 Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
8.4 Building the Image with MIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
9 Getting In 31
9.1 Boot and Flashing Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
9.2 Operating Blind on an Existing Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
9.3 Logs across reboots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
9.4 Splitting and Re-Assembling Boot Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
10 Flashing the rootfs image 35
10.1 Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
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10.2 Flashing back to Stock Android . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
10.3 Flashing using Android Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
11 Manual Installation and Maintenance 37
11.1 Extracting the rootfs via adb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
11.2 Flashing the boot image via adb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
11.3 Flashing or booting the boot image via fastboot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
11.4 Interacting with the rootfs via adb from Android . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
12 Modifications and Patches 39
12.1 Hybris Modifications to an Android base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
12.2 Configuring and Compiling the Kernel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
13 Detailed subsystem adaptation guides 41
13.1 Vibration / force feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
13.2 GStreamer v1.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
13.3 Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
13.4 Cellular modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
13.5 Bluetooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
13.6 WLAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
13.7 NFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
13.8 GPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
13.9 Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
13.10 Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
13.11 Power management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
13.12 Watchdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
13.13 Touch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
14 Middleware 49
14.1 MCE libhybris Plugin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
14.2 MCE configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
14.3 Configuring haptics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
14.4 Non-Graphical Feedback Daemon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
14.5 Non-Graphic Feedback Daemon PulseAudio Plugin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
14.6 Non-Graphic Feedback Daemon Droid ffmemless Plugin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
14.7 Non-Graphic Feedback Daemon Droid Vibrator Plugin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
14.8 PulseAudio Droid Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
14.9 Qt5 QtFeedback Droid Vibrator Plugin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
14.10 Qt5 Hardware Composer QPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
14.11 SensorFW Qt 5 / libhybris Plugin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
14.12 Build HA Middleware Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
15 List of Repositories 55
16 Package Naming Policy 57
16.1 List of naming rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
16.2 List of Provides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
16.3 TODO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
17 License 59
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v3.3.0.0 Sailfish OS Hardware Adaptation Development Kit Documentation
This is a guide to help you understand how you can port Sailfish OS to devices running Android™ OS.
Warning: Modifying or replacing your device’s software may void your device’s warranty, lead to data loss,
hair loss, financial loss, privacy loss, security breaches, or other damage, and therefore must be done entirely
at your own risk. No one affiliated with this project is responsible for your actions but yourself. Good luck.
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Sailfish OS Hardware Adaptation Development Kit Documentation v3.3.0.0
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CHAPTER
ONE
OVERVIEW
1.1 Goal
By following this guide you can set up a Sailfish OS (or another Sailfish Core based) Linux system that will run
on an Android device, on top of an existing Android Hardware Adaptation kernel and drivers.
This consists of:
Sailfish Core: the GNU/Linux userspace core
Android Hardware Adaptation (HA/HAL), consisting of:
Device-specific Android Kernel
Android base which can be:
LineageOS - https://wiki.lineageos.org
AOSP - Android Open Source Project - https://source.android.com
CAF - Code Aurora Forum - https://www.codeaurora.org
Sony Open Devices program - https://developer.sony.com/develop/open-devices
Vendor-specific Android base
Binary device drivers taken from an Android base
Hybris patches to the Android base
The libhybris interface built against the binary drivers
Middleware packages depending on hardware-specific plugins
A Qt/Wayland QPA plugin utilizing the Android hwcomposer
Sailfish OS components
1.2 Development
1.2.1 Requirements
The development environment uses the Platform SDK, with:
one or more device specific targets (a rootfs with device-specific headers and libraries)
a HA build SDK (a minimal Ubuntu chroot required to build the Android sources)
During the HA development you’ll typically have one window/terminal using the HA build SDK where you build
and work on Android code and another session using the Platform SDK where you build RPMs for the hardware
adaptation.
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Setting up the Platform SDK, as well as the device-specific targets and the Ubuntu HA build chroot is described
in Setting up the SDKs.
Commands and output from the Platform SDK session are indicated using PLATFORM_SDK $ at the top of the
code block, like this:
PLATFORM_SDK $
echo "run this command in the Platform SDK terminal"
How to enter PLATFORM_SDK $ is explained in Setup the Platform SDK.
Commands and output from the HA build session are indicated using HABUILD_SDK $ at the top of the code
block, like this:
HABUILD_SDK $
echo "run this command in the Ubuntu HA build SDK terminal"
How to enter HABUILD_SDK $ is explained in Entering Ubuntu Chroot.
1.2.2 The build area root directory
In this guide, we refer to the SDK directory hosting Platform SDK, Targets, and Ubuntu chroot with the envi-
ronment variable $PLATFORM_SDK_ROOT. With one SDK target spanning 0.5-1GB, you need around 3GB of
space in total.
1.2.3 Build components
There are a number of components to build; the lower level and Android related components are built in the HA
build SDK; the rest are built in the Platform SDK.
In the HA build SDK
a kernel
a hacking friendly initrd which supports various boot options
hybris-boot.img and hybris-recovery.img (for booting and debugging)
a minimal Android /system/ tree
modified Android parts for compatibility with libhybris and Sailfish OS (e.g. Bionic libc,
logcat, init, . . . )
In the Platform SDK
RPM packages containing all the built binaries and extracted configs
Hardware-specific middleware and plugins (e.g. Qt QPA plugins, PulseAudio)
For distribution, RPM packages are uploaded to a HA-specific repository. With this repository, full system images
using the mic utility. The mic utility is usually also run inside the Platform SDK.
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1.3 Deployment
The hybris-boot.img (containing both the kernel and our custom initrd) is flashed to the device, while the
Sailfish OS rootfs is placed in a subdirectory of the /data/ partition alongside an existing, unmodified Android
system.
The Sailfish OS rootfs is then used as a switchroot target with /data bind-mounted inside it for shared access to
any user data.
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CHAPTER
TWO
PREREQUISITES
2.1 Mobile Device
An Android device officially supported by LineageOS 15.1 (Android 8) and 16.0 (Android 9) at the time
of writing 2019-09-30. CyanogenMod versions (that are Sailfish OS-compatible) 10.1.x, 11.0, 12.1, 13.0,
14.1 will require additional effort because CM has become obsolete. For more supported Android versions
also check this link
Throughout this guide we shall use the term Android base, which will refer to the appropriate
base that you are porting on: LineageOS, AOSP, CAF etc
We also support Sony Open Devices program, and published guidelines how to rebuild flashable
images for:
Xperia X (Sony AOSP 6)
Xperia XA2 (Sony AOSP 8)
Xperia 10 (Sony AOSP 9)
Starting with CM 13.0 (Android 6), support for 64bit ARM has being added to Sailfish OS:
achieved by running a mix of 64bit Linux Kernel and Android HAL, whilst Sailfish OS
userspace is being run in the 32bit mode
See https://wiki.lineageos.org/devices for a list of compatible devices
See https://wiki.merproject.org/wiki/Adaptations/libhybris for a status list of devices already
ported using HADK
See https://wiki.merproject.org/wiki/Adaptations/libhybris/porters for a list of ports in early
stages, and their authors to contact on the IRC
AOSP or CAF Android base support is also possible, but we choose LineageOS for a wider
range of devices. It will be up to the porter to patch an AOSP/CAF base with hybris patches.
Remaining differences in using it are minimal (e.g. using the lunch command instead of
breakfast)
Means to do backup and restore of the device contents (e.g. SD card or USB cable to host computer), as
well as flash recovery images to the device
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2.2 Build Machine
A 64-bit x86 machine with a 64-bit Linux kernel
Sailfish OS Platform SDK (installation explained later)
Sailfish OS Platform SDK Target (explained later)
At least 30 GiB of free disk space (20 GiB source download + more for building) for a complete An-
droid build; a minimal download and HADK build (only hardware adaptation-related components) requires
slightly less space. The newer the Android base version, the bigger the size requirements.
At least 4 GiB of RAM (the more the better)
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CHAPTER
THREE
PREPARING YOUR DEVICE
Verify that you can backup and restore your device and that you understand device recovery options. This is not
only useful when flashing images you build with this guide, but also in case you want to reset your device to its
factory state with stock Android (note that not all Android vendors provide factory images for download, so you
might need to create a full backup of your running Android system and store it in a safe place before starting to
erase and reflash the device with your custom builds).
3.1 Backup and Verify Your Device
As mentioned above, it might be helpful to backup the existing stock Android image before flashing the Android
base release for the first time, as obtaining the stock image might be hard for some vendors (e.g. some stock images
are only available as self-extracting .exe package for Windows) or impossible (some vendors do not provide stock
images for download).
Use Android Recovery (e.g. TWRP or ClockworkMod) to:
1. Backup to SD card: system, data, boot and recovery partitions
2. Test restoring the backup (important)
Warning: While backing up to internal device storage is possible for some devices, if during porting you end
up overwriting that partition, your backups will be gone. In that case (and in case of devices without SD card
slots), it’s better to also copy the backup data to your development machine (e.g. via adb pull in recovery).
Recent versions of adb support full-device backups to a host computer using the adb backup feature.
See the ClockworkMod Instructions for additional help.
3.2 Flash and Test your Android base image
Flash an image that you built or obtained of your Android base, whether it’s LineageOS, CAF, AOSP, or another.
The official LineageOS flashing instructions can be found on this LineageOS wiki page.
You may also want to verify that the Android base build for your device is fully functional, to avoid wasting time
with hardware adaptations that have known issues. Also, your device might have some hardware defects - testing
in Android verifies that all components are working correctly, so you have a functionality baseline to compare
your Sailfish OS build results with.
You should at least check the following features:
OpenGL ES 2.0: Use e.g. Gears for Android to test (the hz you will get there will be max refresh rate).
WLAN connectivity: Connect to an AP, ad-hoc or set up a mobile access point with your device.
Audio: Headset detection, earpiece speaker, loudspeakers, etc.
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Bluetooth: Connect to bluetooth headsets, verify discoverability, send files.
NFC: Check if NFC tags can be detected, read and/or written by the device.
SD/MicroSD: Use a file manager app to see if inserted SD cards can be detected.
USB: MTP, mass storage (if available) and adb access.
Telephony: 2G/3G/LTE calls + data connectivity.
GPS: Using GPS Test, check GLONASS too; typical time to fix; AGPS.
Sensors: Using AndroSensor: Accelerometer, Proximity Sensor, Ambient Light Sensor, Gyroscope, Mag-
netometer (Compass), Hall (flip case), . . .
LEDs: If your device has notification LEDs or keypad backlights.
Camera (front and back): Also test functionality of zoom, flash, etc..
Buttons: Volume up, volume down, power, camera shutter, etc..
Video out: HDMI / MHL connectivity if you have the necessary adapters. TV out.
Screen backlight: Suspend and backlight control, minimum and maximum brightness.
Battery meter: Charge level, battery health, charging via USB (wall charger and host PC).
Vibration motor: Intensity, patterns.
HW composer version: check dumpsys SurfaceFlinger through ADB (see SF Layer Debugging).
Fingerprint sensor
FM Radio
We recommend that you write down the results of these tests, so you can always remember them.
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CHAPTER
FOUR
SETTING UP THE SDKS
4.1 Setting up required environment variables
Throughout this guide we will be referencing the location of your SDK, targets and source code. As is cus-
tomary with Android hardware adaptations, the device vendor ($VENDOR) and device codename ($DEVICE)
are also used, both in scripts and configuration files. Throughout this guide as example, we’ll use Nexus 5
(lge/hammerhead for its vendor/device pair), and port it using CyanogenMod 11.0 version as the “An-
droid base”. Thus ensure you read the code snippets carefully and rename where appropriate for your ported
device/vendor/base.
Now run the following commands on your host operating system fitting for your device and setup:
HOST $
cat <<'EOF' > $HOME/.hadk.env
export ANDROID_ROOT="$HOME/hadk"
export VENDOR="lge"
export DEVICE="hammerhead"
# Set arch to armv7hl even if you are porting a 64bit device
export PORT_ARCH="armv7hl"
EOF
cat <<'EOF' >> $HOME/.mersdkubu.profile
function hadk() { source $HOME/.hadk.env; echo "Env setup for $DEVICE"; }
export PS1="HABUILD_SDK [\${DEVICE}] $PS1"
hadk
EOF
This ensures that the environment is setup correctly when you use the ubu-chroot command to enter the
Android SDK.
It also creates a function hadk that you can use to set or reset the environment variables.
4.2 Setup the Platform SDK
Instructions are found on Sailfish OS wiki (“Quick start” section is enough, do not install SDK Targets yet):
https://sailfishos.org/wiki/Platform_SDK_Installation
Afterwards, temporarily leave the PLATFORM_SDK to topup the newly created ~/.mersdk.profile with
necessary commands:
PLATFORM_SDK $
exit
HOST $
(continues on next page)
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(continued from previous page)
cat <<'EOF' >> $HOME/.mersdk.profile
function hadk() { source $HOME/.hadk.env; echo "Env setup for $DEVICE"; }
hadk
EOF
sfossdk
You’ll need some tools which are not installed into the Platform SDK by default:
android-tools-hadk contains tools and utilities needed for working with the Android SDK
tar is needed to extract the ubu-chroot image
PLATFORM_SDK $
sudo zypper ref
sudo zypper in android-tools-hadk tar
We strongly encourage all porters to use at least 3.0.0.8 Platform SDK. Use sdk-manage command to upgrade
your toolings and targets, or create from new (especially when updating from 2.x to 3.x). To check what release
you are on:
PLATFORM_SDK $
# if no such file, you're on an old SDK version
cat /etc/os-release
More information about keeping your SDK up-to-date: https://sailfishos.org/wiki/SDK_Tips#SDK_Maintenance
4.3 Setting up an Android Build Environment
4.3.1 Downloading and Unpacking Ubuntu Chroot
In order to maintain build stability, we use a Ubuntu GNU/Linux chroot environment from within the Platform
SDK to build our Android source tree. The following commands download and unpack the rootfs to the appropriate
location:
PLATFORM_SDK $
TARBALL=ubuntu-trusty-20180613-android-rootfs.tar.bz2
curl -O https://releases.sailfishos.org/ubu/$TARBALL
UBUNTU_CHROOT=$PLATFORM_SDK_ROOT/sdks/ubuntu
sudo mkdir -p $UBUNTU_CHROOT
sudo tar --numeric-owner -xjf $TARBALL -C $UBUNTU_CHROOT
4.3.2 Entering Ubuntu Chroot
PLATFORM_SDK $
ubu-chroot -r $PLATFORM_SDK_ROOT/sdks/ubuntu
# FIXME: Hostname resolution might fail. This error can be ignored.
# Can be fixed manually by adding the hostname to /etc/hosts
HABUILD_SDK $
(continues on next page)
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(continued from previous page)
# Now you are in the HABUILD_SDK environment
# To leave, just type `exit` or Ctrl+D, and you'll be back to the PLATFORM_SDK
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CHAPTER
FIVE
BUILDING THE ANDROID HAL
5.1 Checking out Source of the Android base
Our build process is based around the Android source tree, but where needed we’ve modified some projects, in
order to apply patches required to make libhybris function correctly, and to minimise the built-in actions and
services in the init.
*
.rc files.
Ensure you have setup your name and e-mail address in your Git configuration:
HABUILD_SDK $
git config --global user.name "Your Name"
git config --global user.email "you@example.com"
You also need to install the repo command from the AOSP source code repositories, see Installing repo.
After you’ve installed the repo command, a set of commands below will download the required projects for
building the modified parts of the Android base used in Sailfish OS hardware adaptations.
All available Android base variants and versions that you can port on can be seen here: https://github.com/
mer-hybris/android/branches
Choose a version which has the best hardware support for your device.
Alternatively, you can patch an Android base of your choosing (e.g. be it CAF or AOSP or another).
The result of your Sailfish OS port will be an installable ZIP file. Before deploying it onto your device, you’ll have
to flash a corresponding version of the Android base, so Sailfish OS can re-use its Android HAL shared objects.
If your primary ROM does not match your Android base or its version, and you would like to keep it on your
device, then look for MultiROM support for it. Starting with its version v28, it supports booting Sailfish OS.
This porting guide is using Nexus 5 and CyanogenMod 11.0 version as example:
HABUILD_SDK $
sudo mkdir -p $ANDROID_ROOT
sudo chown -R $USER $ANDROID_ROOT
cd $ANDROID_ROOT
repo init -u git://github.com/mer-hybris/android.git -b hybris-11.0
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5.2 Device repos
The local manifest contains device-specific repositories, for Android as well as for the mer-hybris builds.
If your device has already been ported, its codes properly placed on GitHub, you should check this repository:
https://github.com/mer-hybris/local_manifests (choose the branch of hybris-* that your are porting to), and use
$DEVICE.xml file instead of creating a new one in this chapter.
Create directory at first:
HABUILD_SDK $
mkdir $ANDROID_ROOT/.repo/local_manifests
If your are working on a new port, you’ll have to create the local manifest yourself, which contains at least two
repos: one for the kernel, another for the device configuration. Find those in the LineageOS device wiki, for Nexus
5 it would be https://wiki.lineageos.org/devices/hammerhead/build#initialize-the-lineageos-source-repository Lo-
cal manifest below will also need pointing to correct branches - identify which one matches the default manifest
branch (stable/cm-11.0 in Nexus 5 case).
Add the following content to $ANDROID_ROOT/.repo/local_manifests/$DEVICE.xml:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<manifest>
<project path="device/lge/hammerhead"
name="CyanogenMod/android_device_lge_hammerhead"
revision="stable/cm-11.0" />
<project path="kernel/lge/hammerhead"
name="CyanogenMod/android_kernel_lge_hammerhead"
revision="stable/cm-11.0" />
</manifest>
Time to sync the whole source code, this might take a while:
HABUILD_SDK $
repo sync --fetch-submodules
The expected disk usage for the source tree after the sync is 13 GB (as of 2015-09-09, hybris-11.0 branch).
Depending on your connection, this might take some time. In the mean time, make yourself familiar with the rest
of this guide.
5.3 Configure Mountpoint Information
Currently in Sailfish OS, udev starts after initrd, which leaves us not being able to use generic partition names
(independent of partition number).
In initrd we then have to specify hardcoded /dev/mmcblkXpY nodes for /boot and /data partitions.
After initrd, systemd needs to mount all other required partitions (such as /system, /firmware, /
persist, /config, . . . ) for the HAL layer to work. The required partitions are read from
*
.fstab and
init
*
.rc files, disabled there, and respective .mount units created all done by $ANDROID_ROOT/rpm
(droid-hal-device).
Unfortunately, systemd cannot recognise named partition paths in .mount units, because of the same late start
of udev, even though one can see already created nodes under /dev/block/platform/
*
/by-name/ or
/dev/block/platform/
*
/
*
/by-name.
To work around this, we need to create a map between partition names and numbers in hybris/
hybris-boot/fixup-mountpoints for each device, for all partitions in this way we are sure to cover
them all, because if done manually by looking through fstab/rc files, some might get unnoticed.
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To get that mapping, you should flash and boot and image of your Android base and execute adb shell on
your host and this: ls -l /dev/block/platform/
*
/by-name/ on your device. In case that yielded
no results try ls -l /dev/block/platform/
*
/
*
/by-name/ in some cases you could also try ls -l
/dev/block/bootdevice/by-name/.
Once you’ve patched fixup-mountpoints, take care if you ever have to run repo sync
--fetch-submodules again because it will reset your changes, unless the file .repo/
local_manifests/$DEVICE.xml is pointing hybris-boot to your fork with the needed fixup-
mountpoints changes.
Then when you get to boot to the Sailfish OS UI, please don’t forget to upstream your fixup-mountpoints
patch.
5.4 Building Relevant Bits of your Android base
In the Android build tree, run the following in a bash shell (if you are using e.g. zsh, you need to run these
commands in a bash shell, as the Android build scripts are assuming you are running bash).
You’ll probably need to iterate this a few times to spot missing repositories, tools, configuration files and others:
HABUILD_SDK $
source build/envsetup.sh
export USE_CCACHE=1
breakfast $DEVICE
make -j$(nproc --all) hybris-hal droidmedia
The relevant output bits will be in out/target/product/$DEVICE/, in particular:
hybris-boot.img: Kernel and initrd
hybris-recovery.img: Recovery boot image
system/ and root/: HAL system libraries and binaries
The approximate size of the output directory out/ after make hybris-hal is 10 GB (as of 2019-03-14,
hybris-sony-aosp-8.1.0_r52-20190206 branch).
5.4.1 Kernel config
Once the kernel has built you can check the kernel config. You can use the Mer kernel config checker:
HABUILD_SDK $
cd $ANDROID_ROOT
hybris/mer-kernel-check/mer_verify_kernel_config \
./out/target/product/$DEVICE/obj/KERNEL_OBJ/.config
Apply listed modifications to the defconfig file that your Android base is using. Which one? It’s different for
every device, most likely first:
Check the value of TARGET_KERNEL_CONFIG under $ANDROID_ROOT/device/$VENDOR/*/BoardConfig*.mk
Examine the output of make bootimage for which defconfig is taken when you’re building kernel, e.g.:
make -C kernel/lge/hammerhead ... cyanogenmod_hammerhead_defconfig
Check your Android base kernel’s commit history for the arch/arm
*
/configs folder, look for def-
config
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If you are in a rush, get rid only of ERROR cases first, but don’t forget to come back to the WARNING ones too.
After you’ll have applied the needed changes, re-run make hybris-boot and re-verify. Lather, rinse, repeat
:) Run also make hybris-recovery in the end when no more errors.
Contribute your mods back
Fork the kernel repo to your GitHub home (indicated by myname in this doc).
For Nexus 5 with CM 11.0 as base, the next action would be (rename where appropriate to match your de-
vice/branch):
HABUILD_SDK $
cd kernel/lge/hammerhead
git checkout -b hybris-11.0
DEFCONFIG=arch/arm/configs/cyanogenmod_hammerhead_defconfig
git add $DEFCONFIG
git commit -m "Hybris-friendly defconfig"
git remote add myname https://github.com/myname/android_kernel_lge_hammerhead
git push myname hybris-11.0
Create PR to the forked kernel repo under github/mer-hybris. Ask a mer-hybris admin to create one, if it isn’t
there.
Adjust your .repo/local_manifests/$DEVICE.xml by replacing the line
<project path="kernel/lge/hammerhead"
name="CyanogenMod/android_kernel_lge_hammerhead"
revision="stable/cm-11.0-XNG3C" />
with
<project path="kernel/lge/hammerhead"
name="myname/android_kernel_lge_hammerhead"
revision="hybris-11.0" />
5.5 Common Pitfalls
If repo sync --fetch-submodules fails with a message like fatal: duplicate path
device/samsung/smdk4412-common in /home/nemo/android/.repo/manifest.xml, remove the local manifest
with rm .repo/local_manifests/roomservice.xml
If you notice git clone commands starting to write out “Forbidden . . . on github repos, you might
have hit API rate limit. To solve this, put your github credentials into ~/.netrc. More info can be found
following this link: Perm.auth. with Git repositories
error: Cannot fetch . . . (GitError: –force-sync not enabled; cannot overwrite a local work tree., usually
happens if repo sync --fetch-submodules gets interrupted. It is a bug of the repo tool. Ensure
all your changes have been safely stowed (check with repo status), and then workaround by:
HABUILD_SDK $
repo sync --force-sync
repo sync --fetch-submodules
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In some cases (with parallel builds), the build can fail, in this case, use make -j1 ... to retry with a
non-parallel build and see the error message without output from parallel jobs. The build usually ends with
the following output:
HABUILD_SDK $
...
Install: .../out/target/product/$DEVICE/hybris-recovery.img
...
Install: .../out/target/product/$DEVICE/hybris-boot.img
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Sailfish OS Hardware Adaptation Development Kit Documentation v3.3.0.0
20 Copyright 2014-2020 Jolla Ltd. | Content licensed under CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0 Unported
CHAPTER
SIX
SETTING UP SCRATCHBOX2 TARGET
It is necessary to setup a Scratchbox2 target to use for packaging your hardware adaptation packages in the next
section. Download and create your Scratchbox2 target following this wiki:
Important: Please use the 3.0.0 target or newer (same requirement as for the Platform SDK Chroot earlier)
Warning: To ensure consistency with HADK build scripts, name your tooling SailfishOS-3.0.0 (or
whichever release you are building for) instead of wiki’s suggested SailfishOS-latest, and your target
as $VENDOR-$DEVICE-$PORT_ARCH (instead of SailfishOS-latest-armv7hl). Ignore the i486
target.
https://sailfishos.org/wiki/Platform_SDK_Target_Installation
To verify the correct installation of the Scratchbox2 target, cross-compile a simple “Hello, World!” C application
with sb2:
PLATFORM_SDK $
cd $HOME
cat > main.c << EOF
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
int main(void) {
printf("Hello, world!\n");
return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}
EOF
sb2 -t $VENDOR-$DEVICE-$PORT_ARCH gcc main.c -o test
If the compilation was successful you can test the executable by running the following command (this will run the
executable using qemu as emulation layer, which is part of the sb2 setup):
sb2 -t $VENDOR-$DEVICE-$PORT_ARCH ./test
The above command should output “Hello, world!” on the console, this proves that the target can compile binaries
and execute them for your architecture.
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22 Copyright 2014-2020 Jolla Ltd. | Content licensed under CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0 Unported
CHAPTER
SEVEN
PACKAGING DROID HAL
In this chapter, we will package the build results of Building the Android HAL as RPM packages and create a local
RPM repository. From there, the RPM packages can be added to a local target and used to build libhybris and the
QPA plugin. They can also be used to build the rootfs.
7.1 Creating Repositories for a New Device
If the folders rpm, hybris/droid-configs, hybris-droid-hal-version-$DEVICE do not ex-
ist yet, create them as follows (example is for Nexus 5, adjust as appropriate and push to your GitHub home):
PLATFORM_SDK $
cd $ANDROID_ROOT
mkdir rpm
cd rpm
git init
git submodule add https://github.com/mer-hybris/droid-hal-device dhd
# Rename 'hammerhead' and other values as appropriate
sed -e "s/@DEVICE@/hammerhead/" \
-e "s/@VENDOR@/lge/" \
-e "s/@DEVICE_PRETTY@/Nexus 5/" \
-e "s/@VENDOR_PRETTY@/LG/" \
dhd/droid-hal-@DEVICE@.spec.template > droid-hal-hammerhead.spec
# Please review droid-hal-hammerhead.spec before committing!
git add .
git commit -m "[dhd] Initial content"
# Create this repository under your GitHub home
git remote add myname https://github.com/myname/droid-hal-hammerhead.git
git push myname master
cd -
mkdir -p hybris/droid-configs
cd hybris/droid-configs
git init
git submodule add https://github.com/mer-hybris/droid-hal-configs \
droid-configs-device
mkdir rpm
sed -e "s/@DEVICE@/hammerhead/" \
-e "s/@VENDOR@/lge/" \
-e "s/@DEVICE_PRETTY@/Nexus 5/" \
-e "s/@VENDOR_PRETTY@/LG/" \
droid-configs-device/droid-config-@DEVICE@.spec.template > \
rpm/droid-config-hammerhead.spec
# Please review rpm/droid-config-hammerhead.spec before committing!
git add .
git commit -m "[dcd] Initial content"
# Create this repository under your GitHub home
(continues on next page)
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(continued from previous page)
git remote add myname https://github.com/myname/droid-config-hammerhead.git
git push myname master
cd -
rpm/dhd/helpers/add_new_device.sh
# On Nexus 5 the output of the last command is:
# Creating the following nodes:
# sparse/
# patterns/
# patterns/jolla-configuration-hammerhead.yaml
# patterns/jolla-hw-adaptation-hammerhead.yaml
cd hybris/droid-configs
COMPOSITOR_CFGS=sparse/var/lib/environment/compositor
mkdir -p $COMPOSITOR_CFGS
cat <<EOF >$COMPOSITOR_CFGS/droid-hal-device.conf
# Config for $VENDOR/$DEVICE
EGL_PLATFORM=hwcomposer
QT_QPA_PLATFORM=hwcomposer
# Determine which node is your touchscreen by checking /dev/input/event
*
. WRITE
˓ALL IN ONE LINE(:
LIPSTICK_OPTIONS=-plugin evdevtouch:/dev/input/event0 -plugin
˓evdevkeyboard:keymap=/usr/share/qt5/keymaps/droid.qmap
EOF
git add .
git commit -m "[dcd] Patterns and compositor config"
git push myname master
cd -
mkdir -p hybris/droid-hal-version-hammerhead
cd hybris/droid-hal-version-hammerhead
git init
git submodule add https://github.com/mer-hybris/droid-hal-version
mkdir rpm
sed -e "s/@DEVICE@/hammerhead/" \
-e "s/@VENDOR@/lge/" \
-e "s/@DEVICE_PRETTY@/Nexus 5/" \
-e "s/@VENDOR_PRETTY@/LG/" \
droid-hal-version/droid-hal-version-@DEVICE@.spec.template > \
rpm/droid-hal-version-hammerhead.spec
# Please review rpm/droid-hal-version-hammerhead.spec before committing!
git add .
git commit -m "[dvd] Initial content"
# Create this repository under your GitHub home
git remote add myname \
https://github.com/myname/droid-hal-version-hammerhead.git
git push myname master
Now to complete you local manifest, this is how it would be done for Nexus 5. Do it for your device by renaming
accordingly:
# add the next 3 entries into .repo/local_manifests/hammerhead.xml
<project path="rpm/"
name="myname/droid-hal-hammerhead" revision="master" />
<project path="hybris/droid-configs"
name="myname/droid-config-hammerhead" revision="master" />
<project path="hybris/droid-hal-version-hammerhead"
name="myname/droid-hal-version-hammerhead" revision="master" />
Once all these 3 repositories get upstreamed under https://github.com/mer-hybris create PR into an appropriate
branch of the file .repo/local_manifests/hammerhead.xml to the
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https://github.com/mer-hybris/local_manifests repository.
7.2 Packaging droid-hal-device
The $ANDROID_ROOT/rpm/ dir contains the needed .spec file to make a set of RPM packages that form the
core Droid hardware adaptation part of the hardware adaptation. It also builds a development package (ends with
-devel) that contains libraries and headers, which are used when building middleware components later on.
7.2.1 Building the droid-hal-device packages
The next step has to be carried out in the Platform SDK chroot:
PLATFORM_SDK $
cd $ANDROID_ROOT
rpm/dhd/helpers/build_packages.sh --droid-hal
rpm/dhd/helpers/build_packages.sh --configs
rpm/dhd/helpers/build_packages.sh --mw
rpm/dhd/helpers/build_packages.sh --gg
rpm/dhd/helpers/build_packages.sh --version
This will compile all the needed packages, patterns, middleware and put them under local repository. If anything
gets modified, just re-run the appropriate part.
7.2.2 Troubleshoot errors from build_packages.sh
Installed (but unpackaged) file(s) found: Add those files to straggler section in your rpm/droid-hal-
$DEVICE.spec before the %include ... line, for example:
%define straggler_files \
/init.mmi.boot.sh\
/init.mmi.touch.sh\
/init.qcom.ssr.sh\
/selinux_version\
/service_contexts\
%{nil}
Then add - droid-hal-hammerhead-detritus to droid-configs/patterns/
jolla-hw-adaptation-hammerhead.yaml (substitute as appropriate for your device)
Lastly, re-run build_packages.sh --droid-hal
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26 Copyright 2014-2020 Jolla Ltd. | Content licensed under CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0 Unported
CHAPTER
EIGHT
CREATING THE SAILFISH OS ROOT FILESYSTEM
8.1 Additional Packages for Hardware Adaptation
See Middleware for a list of all middleware components (not all middleware components are used by every device
adaptation). Most of them will have already been built by the build_packages.sh --mw script, but if you
need an extra one, rebuild with rpm/dhd/helpers/build_packages.sh --mw=GIT_URL.
Via the flexible system of patterns, you will be able to select only working/needed functions for your device.
8.2 Allowed Content in Your Sailfish OS Image
The default set of packages results in a minimal and functional root filesystem.
It is forbidden to add proprietary/commercial packages to your image, because royalty fees need to be paid or
licence constraints are not allowing to redistribute them. Examples:
jolla-xt9 (predictive text input)
sailfish-eas (Microsoft Exchange support)
aliendalvik (Android™ App Support)
sailfish-maps
Any non-free audio/video codecs, etc.
8.3 Patterns
The selection of packages for each hardware adaptation has to be put into a pattern file, so that creating the image
as well as any system updates in the future can pull in and upgrade all packages related to the hardware adaptation.
8.3.1 Modifying a pattern
To make an extra modification to a pattern, edit its respective file under hybris/droid-configs/
patterns/. Take care and always use git status/stash commands. Once happy, commit to your GitHub
home and eventually PR upstream.
For patterns to take effect on the image, run the following:
PLATFORM_SDK $
cd $ANDROID_ROOT
rpm/dhd/helpers/build_packages.sh --configs
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8.4 Building the Image with MIC
You need to choose a Sailfish OS version you want to build.
Important: Avoid building older releases unless you know what you’re doing - we do not guarantee backwards
compatibility for old Sailfish OS versions! E.g., expect patterns to break as new HA packages get introduced etc.
Ensure you pick the same release as your target was in Setting up Scratchbox2 Target. E.g., if target’s ssu lr
versions begin with 3.3.0., build Sailfish OS update 3.3.0.16 (check for the latest, non “Early Access” Sailfish
OS version)
Build a rootfs using RPM repositories and a kickstart file (NB: all errors are non-critical as long as you end up
with a generated .zip image):
PLATFORM_SDK $
# Set the version of your choosing, latest is strongly preferred
# (check with "Sailfish OS version" link above)
export RELEASE=3.3.0.16
# EXTRA_NAME adds your custom tag. It doesn't support '.' dots in it!
export EXTRA_NAME=-my1
rpm/dhd/helpers/build_packages.sh --mic
Once obtained the .zip file, sideload via your device’s recovery mode, or examine other particular ways of
deploying to your device.
Jolla Store functionality can be enabled only if your device identifies itself uniquely - either via IMEI or (for
non-cellular devices) WLAN/BT MAC address. Consult us on #sailfishos-porters IRC channel on Freenode.net
about details.
If creation fails due to absence of a package required by pattern, note down the package name and proceed to
Dealing with a Missing Package.
A more obscure error might look like this:
Warning: repo problem: pattern:jolla-configuration-$DEVICE-(version).noarch
requires jolla-hw-adaptation-$DEVICE,
but this requirement cannot be provided, uninstallable providers:
pattern:jolla-hw-adaptation-$DEVICE-(version).noarch[$DEVICE]
This means a package dependency cannot be satisfied down the hierarchy of patterns. A quick in-place solution
(NB: expand @DEVICE@ occurrences manually):
Substitute the line @Jolla Configuration @DEVICE@ with @jolla-hw-adaptation-@DEVICE@
in your .ks
Update patterns (Modifying a pattern)
Try creating the image again (Building the Image with MIC)
Repeat the steps above substituting respective pattern to walk down the patterns hierarchy you’ll eventually
discover the offending package
If that package is provided by e.g. droid-hal-device (like droid-hal-hammerhead-pulseaudio-settings),
it means that some of its dependencies are not present:
Edit .ks file by having %packages section consisting only of single
droid-hal-hammerhead-pulseaudio-settings (note there is no @ at the be-
ginning of the line, since it’s a package, not a pattern) another mic run error will show that
the offending package is actually
pulseaudio-modules-droid
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v3.3.0.0 Sailfish OS Hardware Adaptation Development Kit Documentation
Important: When found and fixed culprit in next sections, restore your .ks %packages section to @Jolla
Configuration @DEVICE@! Then try creating the image again (Building the Image with MIC)
Now you’re ready to proceed to the Dealing with a Missing Package section.
8.4.1 Dealing with a Missing Package
If that package is critical (e.g. libhybris, qt5-qpa-hwcomposer-plugin etc.), build and add it to the
local repo as explained in extra-mw. Afterwards perform:
Modifying a pattern
Building the Image with MIC
Otherwise if a package is not critical, and you accept to have less functionality (or even unbootable) image, you
can temporarily comment it out from patterns in hybris/droid-configs/patterns and orderly perform:
Modifying a pattern
Building the Image with MIC
Alternatively (or if you can’t find it among patterns) provide a line beginning with dash (e.g. -jolla-camera)
indicating explicit removal of package, to your .ks %packages section (remember that regenerating .ks will
overwrite this modification).
8.4.2 Troubleshooting
/dev/null - Permission denied
Most likely the partition your Platform SDK resides in, is mounted with nodev option. Remove that option from
mount rules.
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CHAPTER
NINE
GETTING IN
9.1 Boot and Flashing Process
This varies from device to device. There are a few different boot loaders and flashing mechanisms used for
Android devices:
fastboot: Used by most Nexus devices
odin: Used by most Samsung devices
For flashing fastboot-based devices, use fastboot (available in the Platform SDK), for odin-based devices, use
Heimdall.
9.2 Operating Blind on an Existing Device
Long story short, you will have to assume that you cannot:
See any framebuffer console
See any error messages of any kind during bootup
Get any information relayed from your startup process
Set any kind of modified kernel command lines
Hence, we have to learn how to operate blind on a device. The good news is that when you have a working kernel,
you can combine it with a init ramdisk and that Android’s USB gadget is built in to most kernel configurations.
It is possible then for the ramdisk to set up working USB networking on most devices and then open up a telnet
daemon.
The hybris-boot repository contains such an initrd with convenient USB networking, DHCP and telnet server,
plus the ability to boot into a Sailfish OS system. The init system in the hybris-boot initrd will attempt to write
information via the USB device serial number and model. So dmesg on the host could produce:
HOST $
dmesg # sample output:
...
[1094634.238136] usb 2-2: Manufacturer: Mer Boat Loader
[1094634.238143] usb 2-2: SerialNumber: Mer Debug setting up (DONE_SWITCH=no)
...
However dmesg doesn’t report all changes in the USB subsystem and the init script will attempt to update the
iSerial field with information so also do:
HOST $
lsusb -v | grep iSerial # sample output:
iSerial 3 Mer Debug telnet on port 23 on rndis0 192.168.2.15 - also running
˓udhcpd
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(continued from previous page)
However, if it says something like:
[1094634.238143] usb 2-2: SerialNumber: Mer Debug setting up (DONE_SWITCH=yes)
connectivity will be available via telnet 192.168.2.15 2323 port.
9.3 Logs across reboots
DEVICE $
devel-su
# change Storage=volatile --> Storage=automatic in:
vi /etc/systemd/journald.conf
mkdir /var/log/journal
reboot
Systemd suppresses journal, and some valuable info might get hidden. To prevent this, set
RateLimitInterval=0
9.3.1 Bootloops
If device bootloops, there might be several reasons:
If it immediately reboots (and especially if it later boots to recovery mode), SELinux is enabled, and all ports
based on Android 4.4 or newer need to disable it. Add CONFIG_SECURITY_SELINUX_BOOTPARAM=y
to your kernel defconfig, and selinux=0 to your kernel command line (usually in
BOARD_KERNEL_CMDLINE under $ANDROID_ROOT/device/$VENDOR/*/BoardConfig*.mk)
If it reboots after a minute or so, be quick and telnet into device, then do:
ln -s /dev/null /etc/systemd/system/ofono.service
Check if your /system is mounted by systemd (system.mount unit)
9.3.2 Tips
To ease debugging in unstable/halting/logs spamming early ports:
DEVICE $
systemctl mask droid-hal-init
systemctl mask user@100000
9.3.3 Get connected
Use USB networking to connect to the Internet from your Sailfish OS
Execute on your host as root. Use the interface which your host uses to connect to the Internet. It’s wlan0 in this
example:
HOST $
iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o wlan0 -j MASQUERADE
echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
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Execute on the device:
TARGET $
route add default gw 192.168.2.X # <- host's usb0 IP
echo 'nameserver 208.67.222.222' > /etc/resolv.conf
9.4 Splitting and Re-Assembling Boot Images
A boot.img file is basically a combination of a Linux kernel and an initramfs as cpio archive. The Platform
SDK offer the mkbootimg to build a boot image from a kernel and cpio archive. To split a boot image, use
split_bootimg in Platform SDK.
In the Sailfish OS port, a boot image with Sailfish OS-specific scripts will be built automatically. These boot im-
ages are then available as hybris-boot.img (for booting into Sailfish OS) and hybris-recovery.img (for debugging
via telnet and test-booting).
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34 Copyright 2014-2020 Jolla Ltd. | Content licensed under CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0 Unported
CHAPTER
TEN
FLASHING THE ROOTFS IMAGE
In order to be able to use Sailfish OS on the device, the parts that we built and assembled in the previous chapters
now need to be flashed to the device. After flashing, Sailfish OS should boot on your device on the next reboot.
10.1 Prerequisites
Android Recovery flashed to your device
The stock firmware image (for your version and device)
The Android base release (for your version and device)
A Sailfish OS rootfs update .zip, created by mic
10.2 Flashing back to Stock Android
It is important that you start with a fresh stock image that matches the Android base release version you are going
to flash (which in turn is dictated by the Sailfish OS image you are going to flash).
While the Android base (e.g. CyanogenMod) .zip contains all files in /system/ (e.g. libraries and libhardware
modules), the stock image also contains firmware parts and flashables for partitions that are not included in the
Android base .zip.
For example, if you are running stock 4.4.2 on a Nexus 4 (mako), and you are going to flash CM 10.1.3 and
Sailfish OS to it, you have to first flash the stock 4.2.2 (note that this is 4.2, not 4.4) first, so that the firmware bits
are matching the CM version.
If you do not flash the right stock version (and therefore firmware), there might be some issues when booting into
Sailfish OS:
Problems accessing /sdcard/ in recovery (e.g. adb push does not work)
WLAN, sensors, audio and other hardware not working
If you experience such issues, please make sure you first flash the stock system, ROM, followed by the Android
base image, and finally the Sailfish OS update. Please also note that you can’t just take the latest stock ROM
and/or Android base ROM - both versions have to match the Android version against which the Sailfish OS
adaptation was built.
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10.3 Flashing using Android Recovery
1. Boot into Android Recovery
2. Upload the CM release: adb push cm-10.1.3-$DEVICE.zip /sdcard/
3. Upload Sailfish OS: adb push sailfishos-$DEVICE-devel-1.2.3.4.zip /sdcard/
4. In the Recovery on the device:
1. Clear data and cache (factory reset)
2. Install the CM release by picking the CM image
3. Install Sailfish OS by picking the SFOS image
4. Reboot the device
36 Copyright 2014-2020 Jolla Ltd. | Content licensed under CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0 Unported
CHAPTER
ELEVEN
MANUAL INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE
This assumes you are booted into the Android base on your device, can adb shell to it to get a root shell and
have your boot image and rootfs tarball ready.
Some of these approaches also work in Android Recovery (there’s an adbd running).
11.1 Extracting the rootfs via adb
Replace sailfishos-devel-hammerhead.tar.bz2 with the name of your rootfs tarball:
PLATFORM_SDK $
adb push sailfishos-devel-hammerhead.tar.bz2 /sdcard/
adb shell
su
mkdir -p /data/.stowaways/sailfishos
tar --numeric-owner -xvf /sdcard/sailfishos-devel-hammerhead.tar.bz2 \
-C /data/.stowaways/sailfishos
11.2 Flashing the boot image via adb
The following example is for hammerhead, for other devices the output partition and filename is obviously
different:
PLATFORM_SDK $
cd $ANDROID_ROOT
adb push out/target/product/hammerhead/hybris-boot.img /sdcard/
adb shell
su
dd if=/sdcard/hybris-boot.img of=/dev/block/mmcblk0p19
11.3 Flashing or booting the boot image via fastboot
PLATFORM_SDK $
cd $ANDROID_ROOT
# to smoke test a boot image without flashing it:
fastboot boot out/target/product/$DEVICE/hybris-boot.img
# to permanently flash an image to boot partition:
fastboot flash boot out/target/product/$DEVICE/hybris-boot.img
adb shell
(continues on next page)
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Sailfish OS Hardware Adaptation Development Kit Documentation v3.3.0.0
(continued from previous page)
su
dd if=/sdcard/hybris-boot.img of=/dev/block/mmcblk0p19
11.4 Interacting with the rootfs via adb from Android
You can interact with the Sailfish OS rootfs and carry out maintenance (editing files, installing packages, etc..)
when booted into an Android system. You have to have your rootfs already installed/extracted. You can use
Android’s WLAN connectivity to connect to the Internet and download updates:
PLATFORM_SDK $
adb shell
su
mount -o bind /dev /data/.stowaways/sailfishos/dev
mount -o bind /proc /data/.stowaways/sailfishos/proc
mount -o bind /sys /data/.stowaways/sailfishos/sys
chroot /data/.stowaways/sailfishos/ /bin/su -
echo "nameserver 8.8.8.8" >/etc/resolv.conf
...
38 Copyright 2014-2020 Jolla Ltd. | Content licensed under CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0 Unported
CHAPTER
TWELVE
MODIFICATIONS AND PATCHES
Running Sailfish OS on top of a Mer Hybris adaptation requires a few modifications to the underlying Android
base. We maintain forks of some repos with those patches applied.
12.1 Hybris Modifications to an Android base
Our modifications are tracked by our own Hybris-specific repo manifest file. The below sections outline our
modifications to these sources.
12.1.1 Droid System
In order to work with libhybris, some parts of the lower levels of Android need to be modified:
bionic/
Pass errno from bionic to libhybris (libdsyscalls.so)
Rename /dev/log/ to /dev/alog/
TLS slots need to be re-assigned to not conflict with glibc
Support for HYBRIS_LD_LIBRARY_PATH in the linker
Add /usr/libexec/droid-hybris/system/lib to the linker search path
external/busybox/: Busybox is used in the normal and recovery boot images. We need some addi-
tional features like mdev and udhcpd
system/core/
Make cutils and logcat aware of the new log location (/dev/alog/)
Add /usr/libexec/droid-hybris/lib-dev-alog/ to the LD_LIBRARY_PATH
Force SELinux OFF since hybris does not utilise the relevant Android parts, and leaving
SELinux support ON would then cause device to reboot to recovery
Remove various init and init.rc settings and operations that are handled by systemd
and/or Hybris on a Sailfish OS system
frameworks/base/: Only build servicemanager, bootanimation and androidfw to make the
minimal Droid HAL build smaller (no Java content)
libcore/: Don’t include JavaLibrary.mk, as Java won’t be available
All these modifications have already been done in the mer-hybris GitHub organisation of forks from various
Android sources. If its android manifest is used, these patches will be included automatically.
In addition to these generic modifications, for some devices and SoCs we also maintain a set of patches to fix
issues with drivers that only happen in Sailfish OS, for example:
hardware/samsung/: SEC hwcomposer: Avoid segfault if registerProcs was never called
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Sailfish OS Hardware Adaptation Development Kit Documentation v3.3.0.0
12.1.2 Kernel
For the Kernel, some configuration options must be enabled to support systemd features, and some configuration
options must be disabled, because they conflict or block certain features of Sailfish OS.
Required Configuration Options: See $ANDROID_ROOT/hybris/hybris-boot/init-script
function check_kernel_config() for a list of required kernel options
Conflicting Configuration Options: CONFIG_ANDROID_PARANOID_NETWORK: This would make all
network connections fail if the user is not in the group with ID 3003.
As an alternative to checking the kernel options in the initramfs, the script $ANDROID_ROOT/hybris/
mer-kernel-check can also be used to verify if all required configuration options have been enabled.
12.2 Configuring and Compiling the Kernel
For supported devices, the kernel is built as part of mka hybris-hal with the right configuration.
For new devices, you have to make sure to get the right kernel configuration included in the repository. For
this, clone the kernel repository for the device into mer-hybris and configure the kernel using hybris/
mer-kernel-check.
40 Copyright 2014-2020 Jolla Ltd. | Content licensed under CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0 Unported
CHAPTER
THIRTEEN
DETAILED SUBSYSTEM ADAPTATION GUIDES
Sailfish OS uses some kernel interfaces directly, bypassing the android HAL. Mainly this is used in places where
the kernel API is stable enough and also used by Android. The other reasons for using kernel APIs directly
include better features offered by standard kernel frameworks, differing middleware between Sailfish OS linux
and Android, and lastly special features of Sailfish OS.
13.1 Vibration / force feedback
The default vibra framework that is used in full featured productized Sailfish OS devices is the force feedback
API in kernel input framework. The kernel drivers should either use the ffmemless framework OR provide
FF_PERIODIC and FF_RUMBLE support via as a normal input driver. In this chapter we go through the ff-
memless aproach of adapting your kernel for Sailfish OS
This is a different method than what is used in community Sailfish OS ports, which utilize the android vibrator /
timed-output API. The android vibrator plugins in Sailfish OS middleware have very reduced feature set, and are
not recommended for commercial products.
In order to utilize the standard input framework force feedback features of Sailfish OS, the android timed output
vibrator kernel driver needs to be converted to a ffmemless driver. The main tasks for this are:
Enable CONFIG_INPUT_FF_MEMLESS kernel config option
Disable CONFIG_ANDROID_TIMED_OUTPUT kernel config option
Change maximum amount of ffmemless effects to 64 by patching ff-memless.c:
http://git.kernel.org/cgit/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/tree/drivers/input/ff-memless.c#n41
diff --git a/drivers/input/ff-memless.c b/drivers/input/ff-memless.c
index 117a59a..fa53611 100644
--- a/drivers/input/ff-memless.c
+++ b/drivers/input/ff-memless.c
@@ -39,7 +39,7 @@ MODULE_AUTHOR("Anssi Hannula <anssi.hannula@gmail.com>");
MODULE_DESCRIPTION("Force feedback support for memoryless devices");
/
*
Number of effects handled with memoryless devices
*
/
-#define FF_MEMLESS_EFFECTS 16
+#define FF_MEMLESS_EFFECTS 64
/
*
Envelope update interval in ms
*
/
#define FF_ENVELOPE_INTERVAL 50
Optionally you can decrease ff-memless control interval so that fade and attack envelopes can be used in
short haptic effects as well:
diff --git a/drivers/input/ff-memless.c b/drivers/input/ff-memless.c
index 89d3a3d..33eee2e 100644
--- a/drivers/input/ff-memless.c
(continues on next page)
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(continued from previous page)
+++ b/drivers/input/ff-memless.c
@@ -41,7 +41,7 @@ MODULE_DESCRIPTION("Force feedback support for memoryless devi
#define FF_MEMLESS_EFFECTS 64
/
*
Envelope update interval in ms
*
/
-static int ff_envelope_interval = 50;
+static int ff_envelope_interval = 10;
module_param(ff_envelope_interval, int, S_IWUSR | S_IRUGO);
#define FF_EFFECT_STARTED 0
If your platform happens to already support a ffmemless based vibra driver, just enable it and fix any issues
that you see. Otherwise go through the rest of the points below.
Convert the android timed output vibra driver to support to ffmemless
add “#include <linux/input.h>”
Create a ffmemless play function.
Examples of ffmemless play functions / ffmemless drivers:
http://git.kernel.org/cgit/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/tree/drivers/input/misc/
arizona-haptics.c#n110
http://git.kernel.org/cgit/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/tree/drivers/input/misc/max8997_
haptic.c#n231
http://git.kernel.org/cgit/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/tree/drivers/input/misc/
pm8xxx-vibrator.c#n130
At probe, create a ffmemless device with input_ff_create_memless
http://git.kernel.org/cgit/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/tree/include/linux/input.h#n531
And register the resulting device with input_device_register.
Remember to clean up the input device structure at driver exit
The example ffmemless drivers above can be used for reference
The userspace configuration haptic feedback and effects is handled with ngfd configuration files, see more details
in
Configuring haptics
13.2 GStreamer v1.0
Sailfish OS 2.0 introduces GStreamer v1.0 with hardware-accelerated video and audio encoding and decoding in
Camera, Gallery and Browser, and deprecates GStreamer v0.10.
The GStreamer-droid bridge is part of the integral build process. If you need to modify its source code, then
rebuild it via:
PLATFORM_SDK $
cd $ANDROID_ROOT
rpm/dhd/helpers/build_packages.sh --gg
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13.3 Camera
Launch the Camera app. If if shows black screen and becomes non-responsive, enable the
audiosystem-passthrough-dummy-af package in the patterns and rebuild droid-configs.
When the app is working, it will initially be at its default (low) resolution settings and reduced feature set (e.g. no
flash or focus mode selection). To improve those, install gstreamer1.0-droid-tools on device (RPM is
available under $ANDROID_ROOT/droid-local-repo/$DEVICE/gst-droid/) and launch:
DEVICE $
devel-su # Set your password in Settings | Developer mode
mk-cam-conf 0 /etc/gst-droid/gstdroidcamsrc-0.conf
mk-cam-conf 1 /etc/gst-droid/gstdroidcamsrc-1.conf
This creates configs for each, front and back cameras. Transfer them over and place under $ANDROID_ROOT/
hybris/droid-configs/sparse/etc/gst-droid for persistency (don’t forget to git commit+push
somewhere safe! :)
Next you’ll need to generate the resolutions file. Build the following repo:
PLATFORM_SDK $
cd $ANDROID_ROOT
rpm/dhd/helpers/build_packages.sh --mw=droid-camres
Install the RPM from $ANDROID_ROOT/droid-local-repo/$DEVICE/droid-camres/ onto your de-
vice and execute:
DEVICE $
droid-camres -w
# It creates a failsafe jolla-camera-hw.txt, manual perfecting is encouraged
devel-su # Set your password in Settings | Developer mode
mv jolla-camera-hw.txt /etc/dconf/db/vendor.d/
dconf update
Go to Settings | Apps | Camera and ensure valid ratio and megapixel entries appear in both cameras. Reloading
Camera app should effectuate the changes.
You can further fix/improve the contents of jolla-camera-hw.txt by looking more closely at the output of
droid-camres. Sometimes it chooses an aspect ratio which provides sub-optimal resolution, e.g. it prefers
4:3 for the front facing camera, yet sensor only supports 1280x960, however switching to 16:9 would give a far
superior 1920x1080 resolution.
This command will list all available parameters for a specific camera from the underlying HAL, which will help
with tweaking values such as ISO speed, focus and flash:
GST_DEBUG=6 mk-cam-conf 0 /dev/null 2>&1 | grep params_parse | sed -e 's/.
*
param\s/
˓/' | sort -u
If you find some parameters (such as ISO speed or other 3A settings) are missing, then it’s possible that your
camera device is designed to use an older version of the Camera HAL than the default. You can try forcing a HAL
v1 connection by adding FORCE_HAL:=1 to env.mk in droidmedia.
You are encouraged to set all viewfinder resolutions to match that of your device’s framebuffer. Do check for
regressions via devel-su dconf update and reloading Camera app as you go.
Preserve /etc/dconf/db/vendor.d/jolla-camera-hw.txt under version control just like you did
with gstdroidcamsrc-
*
.conf above.
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Sailfish OS Hardware Adaptation Development Kit Documentation v3.3.0.0
If your device supports flash torch during video recording change flashValues=[2] under [apps/
jolla-camera/primary/video] to flashValues=[2, 32].
Lastly, check other variants of /etc/dconf/db/vendor.d/jolla-camera-hw.txt throughout the
range of existing Sailfish OS devices, or consult our developers how to obtain e.g. more valid ISO values, fo-
cus distance, add other MegaPixel values etc.
Ultimately you are the most welcome to improve the droid-camres tool itself by contributing upstream!
13.4 Cellular modem
Ensure Android’s RIL running ps ax | grep rild (expect one or two /system/bin/rild)
If RIL is not running, check why it is not launched from /init*.rc scripts
If it’s launched, check where it fails with /usr/libexec/droid-hybris/system/bin/logcat
-b radio
Errors in RIL might look like this:
RIL[0][main] qcril_qmi_modem_power_process_bootup: ESOC node is not available
After online search this suggests firmware loading issues on Motorola Moto G. Compare with a healthy radio
logcat after booting back into CM, not all lines starting with E/RIL... will point to a root cause!
If it’s firmware loading problem, trace all needed daemons in CM and their loading order as well as all
mounted firmware, modem, and baseband partitions.
Once RIL is happy, then ofono can be launched. Unmask it if it was previously masked due to causing
reboots in Bootloops.
If you still get no signal indicator in UI, remove SIM PIN and retry
Also install ofono-tests package and run /usr/lib/ofono/test/list-modems
Try to recompile latest ofono master branch from https://git.sailfishos.org/mer-core/ofono
If everything else fails, then stop and strace a failing daemon (either RIL or ofono) from command line
manually
13.4.1 Phone calls don’t work (but SMS and mobile data works)
If the calling parties cannot hear one another, then the audiosystem-passthrough-dummy-af middleware
package is required, which should be enabled in the patterns.
13.5 Bluetooth
For bluetooth Sailfish OS uses BlueZ stack from linux.
TODO: bluetooth adaptation guide.
TODO: add detail about audio routing.
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v3.3.0.0 Sailfish OS Hardware Adaptation Development Kit Documentation
13.6 WLAN
Typically WLAN drivers are external kernel modules in android adaptations. To set up WLAN for such devices, a
systemd service file needs to be created that loads the kernel module at boot. In addition to this you need to check
that firmware files and possible HW tuning files are installed in correct locations on the filesystem.
Sailfish OS WLAN adaptation assumes the driver is compatible with WPA supplicant. This means the WLAN
device driver has to support cfg80211 interface. In some cases connman (the higher level connection manager in
Sailfish) accesses directly the WLAN driver bypassing wpa_supplicant.
The version of currently used wpa_supplicant can be checked from here:
https://git.sailfishos.org/mer-core/wpa_supplicant
The version of used connman can be checked from here:
https://git.sailfishos.org/mer-core/connman
13.6.1 Special quirks: WLAN hotspot
On some android WLAN drivers, the whole connectivity stack needs to be reset after WLAN hotspot use. For that
purpose there is reset service in dsme, please see details how to set that up for your adaptation project in here:
https://git.sailfishos.org/mer-core/dsme/commit/c377c349079b470db38ba6394121b6d899004963
13.7 NFC
Currently there is no NFC middleware in Sailfish OS. Android HAL API support should be enough for future
compatibility.
13.8 GPS
Ensure the test_gps command gets a fix after a while.
The necessary middleware is already built for you, just add geoclue-provider-hybris package into your
patterns.
13.9 Audio
For audio, Sailfish OS uses PulseAudio as the main mixer. For audio routing ohmd is used.
TODO: Add info about audio routing configuration TODO: Add more info in general.
13.10 Sensors
Sailfish OS sensor support is based upon Sensor Framework at: https://git.sailfishos.org/mer-core/sensorfw
Hybris based systems can use the hybris sensor adaptor plugins, which uses existing android libhardware sensor
adaptations to read sensor data and control.
It can also be configured for standard linux sysfs and evdev sensor interfaces.
It should be configured at /etc/sensorfw/primaryuse.conf, which links to a device specific conf file. Historically
named sensord-<BOARDNAME>.conf. You can also use any conf file by specifying it on the commandline.
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Sailfish OS Hardware Adaptation Development Kit Documentation v3.3.0.0
For hybris based platforms, this will be sensord-hybris.conf, and most likely will not have to be modified.
A copy of this file is already among default configs: https://git.sailfishos.org/mer-core/sensorfw/blob/master/
config/sensord-hybris.conf If you do make modifications to it, add the file under $ANDROID_ROOT/hybris/
droid-configs/sparse/etc/sensorfw/primaryuse.conf
There are already a few device specific conf files to look at if the device needs more configuration. Example of
mixed hybris and evdev configuration https://git.sailfishos.org/mer-core/sensorfw/blob/master/config/sensord-tbj.
conf
Generally, if sensors are working on the android/hybris side, they will work in sensorfw and up to the Sailfish UI.
libhybris comes with /usr/bin/test_sensors which can list those Android sensors found.
Above Sensor Framework is QtSensors, which requires a configuration file at /etc/xdg/QtProject/Sensors.conf
which is supplied with the sensorfw backend plugin in QtSensors and a copy of it is already among your default
configs.
For Sailfish Core based systems, the QtSensors source code is at: https://github.com/mer-qt/qtsensors
Debugging output of sensorfwd can be increased one level during runtime by sending (as root) USR1 signal like
so: kill -USR1 pgrep sensorfwd or specified on the commandline for startup debugging.
Sending kill -USR2 pgrep sensorfwd will output a current status report.
13.11 Power management
Under the hood, Sailfish OS uses the android wake locks. Typically there is no need to change anything in the
kernel side (assuming it works fine with android) for the power management to work, as long as all the device
drivers are working normally.
The userspace API’s for platform applications is exposed via nemo-keepalive package. See more details here:
https://git.sailfishos.org/mer-core/nemo-keepalive
13.12 Watchdog
A standard linux kernel watchdog core driver support is expected. The device node should be in /dev/watchdog.
It should be configured with following kernel options:
CONFIG_WATCHDOG=y
CONFIG_WATCHDOG_CORE=y
CONFIG_WATCHDOG_NOWAYOUT=y
NOTE 1: Please note that watchdog driver should disable itself during suspend.
NOTE 2: Normally the watchdog period is programmed automatically, but if your driver does not support
programming the period, the default kicking period is 20 seconds.
13.13 Touch
Sailfish OS is compatible with standard kernel multitouch input framework drivers. Protocol A is preferred. The
main configuration needed is to symlink the correct event device node to /dev/touchscreen. To do this the best way
is to set up a udev rule that checks the devices with evcap script and creates the link once first valid one is found.
See more details for evcap here:
https://github.com/mer-hybris/evcap
The udev rule can be put to file
/lib/udev/rules.d/61-touchscreen.rules
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v3.3.0.0 Sailfish OS Hardware Adaptation Development Kit Documentation
The reason this is not done by default is that typically driver authors mark bit varying capabilities as supported
and there could be multiple touch controllers on a device, so the final rule is best to be written in a device specific
configs package.
NOTE: if you still have problems with touch, please check that lipstick environment has correct touch device
parameter:
cat /var/lib/environment/compositor/droid-hal-device.conf
LIPSTICK_OPTIONS should have “-plugin evdevtouch:/dev/touchscreen”
13.13.1 Special feature: double tap to wake up
Sailfish OS supports waking up the device from suspend (unblanking the screen) via double tap gesture
to the touchscreen. The touchscreen driver should either emulate KEY_POWER press / release or post a
EV_MSC/MSC_GESTURE event with value 0x4 when double tap gesture is detected when waking up from
suspend.
In order to avoid excess power drain when device is in pocket facing users skin, some sysfs should be exported
to allow disabling the touch screen. The feature requires that the device has a working proximity sensor that can
wake up the system when it is suspended (to be able to update touch screen state according to need). To configure
MCE that handles this see MCE configuration
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Sailfish OS Hardware Adaptation Development Kit Documentation v3.3.0.0
48 Copyright 2014-2020 Jolla Ltd. | Content licensed under CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0 Unported
CHAPTER
FOURTEEN
MIDDLEWARE
This chapter contains some background information about the middleware parts that are part of the Hardware
Adapation. Using this info, it should be possible to customize and build the middleware parts for a given device.
14.1 MCE libhybris Plugin
TODO
14.2 MCE configuration
/etc/mce/60-doubletap-jolla.ini
Configures the touchscreen kernel driver sysfs that can be used to disable and enable double tap to wake up feature.
Example of it’s content:
# Configuration for doubletap wakeup plugin
[DoubleTap]
# Path to doubletap wakeup control file
ControlPath=/sys/bus/i2c/drivers/touch_synaptics/3-0020/double_tap_enable
# Value to write when enabling doubletap wakeups
EnableValue=1
# Value to write when Disabling doubletap wakeups
DisableValue=0
TODO:
/etc/mce/60-mce-cpu-scaling-governor.ini
/etc/mce/60-mce-display-blank-timeout.conf
/etc/mce/60-mce-display-brightness.conf
/etc/mce/60-mce-possible-display-dim-timeouts.conf
/etc/mce/60-memnotify-jolla.conf
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14.3 Configuring haptics
Sailfish OS has 2 kinds of feedback methods:
1. NGFD - Non-graphical feedback framework ffmemless plugin
2. QtFeedback - QtFeedback with direct ffmemless backend
The NGFD plugin is for providing feedback for events and alarms, while QtFeedback is used for minimum latency
haptics and for 3rd party applications.
Both of these have their own default .ini configuration files with the default effects for basic use. The default
configurations can be overridden with device specific .ini files in your adaptation project’s config package. The
default config files can be seen in:
NGFD: /usr/share/ngfd/plugins.d/ffmemless.ini
QtFeedback: /usr/lib/qt5/plugins/feedback/ffmemless.ini
The default configuration files can be over-ridden with setting environment variables
NGF_FFMEMLESS_SETTINGS (ngfd) and FF_MEMLESS_SETTINGS (qtfeedback), that point to device
specifc configuration files.
To set the environment variables add environment config file to your config package that installs to (NOTE:
Replace “DEVICE” with your device’s name. E.g. mako, hammerhead, etc.):
/var/lib/environment/nemo/60-DEVICE-vibra.conf
And that file should contain 2 lines:
FF_MEMLESS_SETTINGS=/usr/lib/qt5/plugins/feedback/qtfeedback-DEVICE.ini
NGF_FFMEMLESS_SETTINGS=/usr/share/ngfd/plugins.d/ngf-vibra-DEVICE.ini
Now you can use those 2 files to tune force feedback effects suitable specifically for your device. For template to
start making your own configuration files, just copy-paste the ngfd ffmemless.ini and Qtfeedback ffmemless.ini
default config files as the device specific files and then edit only needed bits.
The reason we have possibility for device specific effects is that hardware mechanics and the vibra engines differ
greatly device-by-device, and single settings will not give good effect on all devices.
At minimum, you should ALWAYS tune at least KEYPAD effect in qtfeedback-DEVICE.ini for every
device separately to make the VKB haptic feel good and punctual.
Good guideline for VKB haptic is that it should be as short as possible, and vibrate at the resonance frequency of
the device mechanics when vibra engine reaches top magnitude of the vibra effect. It should not feel like vibration,
but like a single kick.
14.4 Non-Graphical Feedback Daemon
The Non-Graphical Feedback Daemon provides combined audio, haptic, and LED feedback for system events and
alarms. These events include such things as ring tones, message tones, clock alarms, email notifications, etc.
https://git.sailfishos.org/mer-core/ngfd
TODO: add more detail about configuring NGFD.
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v3.3.0.0 Sailfish OS Hardware Adaptation Development Kit Documentation
14.5 Non-Graphic Feedback Daemon PulseAudio Plugin
TODO
14.6 Non-Graphic Feedback Daemon Droid ffmemless Plugin
This is the main plugin handling vibra feedback for Sailfish OS. See Configuring haptics for more details.
14.7 Non-Graphic Feedback Daemon Droid Vibrator Plugin
This is a secondary vibra plugin for demoing and quick ports. It works out of the box with android timed output
drivers. The feature set is reduced compared to ffmemless plugin.
TODO
14.8 PulseAudio Droid Modules
TODO - more information about how PA works
14.9 Qt5 QtFeedback Droid Vibrator Plugin
TODO
14.10 Qt5 Hardware Composer QPA
This Qt Platform Abstraction plugin makes use of the libhardware hwcomposer API to send rendered frames from
the Wayland Compositor to the actual framebuffer. While for some older devices, just flipping the fbdev was
enough, more recent devices actually require using hwcomposer to request flipping and for vsync integration.
The important environment variables are:
EGL_PLATFORM: For the Wayland Compositor, this needs to be set to fbdev on devices with older hw-
composer versions, and to hwcomposer for hwcomposer version 1.1 and newer. For best results, first try
fbdev, and if it doesn’t work, try hwcomposer instead. For the Wayland Clients, this always needs to be
set to wayland.
QT_QPA_PLATFORM: For the Wayland Compositor, this needs to be set to hwcomposer to use the plugin.
Previously, eglfs was used, but the hwcomposer module replaces the old plugin on Sailfish OS on
Droid. For Wayland Clients, this always needs to be set to wayland.
When starting up an application (e.g. the Wayland Compositor, lipstick), the systemd journal (journalctl
-fa as user root) will show some details about the detected screen metrics, which will come from the framebuffer
device:
HwComposerScreenInfo:251 - EGLFS: Screen Info
HwComposerScreenInfo:252 - - Physical size: QSizeF(57, 100)
HwComposerScreenInfo:253 - - Screen size: QSize(540, 960)
HwComposerScreenInfo:254 - - Screen depth: 32
Also, it will print information about the hwcomposer module and the device. In this specific case, the hwcomposer
version is 0.3:
Copyright 2014-2020 Jolla Ltd. | Content licensed under CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0 Unported 51
Sailfish OS Hardware Adaptation Development Kit Documentation v3.3.0.0
== hwcomposer module ==
*
Address: 0x40132000
*
Module API Version: 2
*
HAL API Version: 0
*
Identifier: hwcomposer
*
Name: Qualcomm Hardware Composer Module
*
Author: CodeAurora Forum
== hwcomposer module ==
== hwcomposer device ==
*
Version: 3 (interpreted as 30001)
*
Module: 0x40132000
== hwcomposer device ==
The source tree contains different implementations of hwcomposer backends, each one for a different hwcomposer
API version (see hwcomposer/hwcomposer_backend.cpp). Based on that detection, one of the existing
implementations is used. Right now, the following implementations exist:
hwcomposer_backend_v0: Version 0.x (e.g. 0.3) of the hwcomposer API. It can handle swapping of an EGL
surface to the display, doesn’t use any additional hardware layers at the moment and can support switching
the screen off. The VSync period is queried from the hwcomposer device, but it will fall back to 60 Hz if
the information cannot be determined via the libhardware APIs. (EGL_PLATFORM=fbdev)
hwcomposer_backend_v10: Version 1.0 of the hwcomposer API. It supports one display device, handles
VSync explicitly and uses a single hardware layer that will be drawn via EGL (and not composed via
hwcomposer). Swapping is done by waiting for VSync and uses libsync-based synchronization of posting
buffers. Switching the screen off is also supported, and sleeping the screen disables VSync events. Also, the
same VSync period algorithm is used (try to query from libhardware, fall back to 60 Hz if detection fails).
(EGL_PLATFORM=fbdev)
hwcomposer_backend_v11: Version 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, and 1.5 of the hwcomposer API. Versions higher
or equal than 1.3 only support physical displays, whereas 1.1 and 1.2 support also virtual displays. This
requires libsync and hwcomposer-egl from libhybris. Most of the hwcomposer 1.0 API properties apply,
with the exception that frame posting and synchronization happens with the help of libhybris’ hwcomposer
EGL platform. (EGL_PLATFORM=hwcomposer)
Instead of running the Wayland Compositor (lipstick) on top of the hwcomposer QPA plugin, one can also run all
other Qt 5-based applications, but the application can only open a single window (multiple windows are not sup-
ported, and will cause an application abort). For multiple windows, Wayland is used. This means that for testing, it
is possible to run a simple, single-window Qt 5 application on the framebuffer (without any Wayland Compositor
in between) by setting the environment variables EGL_PLATFORM and QT_QPA_PLATFORM according to the
above.
14.11 SensorFW Qt 5 / libhybris Plugin
TODO
14.12 Build HA Middleware Packages
rpm/dhd/helpers/build_packages.sh now is taking care of builds/rebuilds/local repo preparation and
patterns.
52 Copyright 2014-2020 Jolla Ltd. | Content licensed under CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0 Unported